This text is republished from Hakai Journal, an internet publication about science and society in coastal ecosystems. Learn extra tales like this at

On a snowy January morning in 2022, I stroll into Duo, an unique little restaurant within the coronary heart of the southern Italian city of Lecce, carrying a polystyrene field crammed with two frozen plate-sized jellyfish. Antonella Leone, a senior researcher on the Italian Nationwide Analysis Council’s Institute of Sciences of Meals Manufacturing, is with me holding an authorization letter for chef Fabiano Viva to legally deal with the ocean creatures. Viva awaits us on the restaurant’s entrance, greets us with a hearty handshake, and takes the cooler. Inside minutes, his assistant is defrosting the jellyfish beneath the faucet. Viva laces up his white apron, fills a pot with water, and ignites the range.

Leone is a part of a small group of scientists who’ve been learning Mediterranean jellyfish for the previous 12 years. For the final seven, they’ve concerned cooks, testing methods to get most of the people fascinated with consuming the marine invertebrate.

“The thought of consuming a jellyfish by no means crossed our minds, as a result of we’d solely see one each on occasion,” Leone explains. However as a number of species of native and alien jellyfish grew to become more and more considerable—equivalent to in 2014 when a jellyfish bloom noticed 400 tonnes of the barrel jellyfish per sq. kilometer carpeting the huge Gulf of Taranto—Leone questioned what they may do with them.

However convincing Italians to eat jellyfish is like attractive them to attempt pineapple on pizza––not a easy job. Southern Italians eat octopus, sea urchin, and different sea creatures, however jellyfish are largely ignored. Promoting jellyfish for human consumption is prohibited within the European Union, as regulators nonetheless don’t take into account the ocean creature a secure, marketable meals because of historic lack of curiosity in them as a meals supply, which is why Leone arrived at Duo with a permission letter in hand.

Security issues round jellyfish don’t appear to be an issue in China, the place jellyfish have been on the menu for nearly two millennia. (A favourite is an appetizer of chilled jellyfish seasoned with darkish vinegar, sugar, soy sauce, hen inventory powder, and sesame oil.) As we speak, 19 nations harvest as much as one million tonnes of the gelatinous sea dweller, contributing to a worldwide business price round US $160-million.

Jellyfish pickled in vinegar is one of the more popular ways to serve the gelatinous invertebrate.
Jellyfish pickled in vinegar is among the extra fashionable methods to serve the gelatinous invertebrate. Photograph by momo2050/Shutterstock

Paired with forward-looking cooks like Viva, Leone and her workforce started researching methods to make jellyfish tasty and secure for Mediterranean menus in 2015. As ocean fish shares proceed to deplete at alarming charges, and jellyfish appear to be thriving, increasingly more persons are asking if consuming jellyfish will successfully mitigate the jellyfish drawback, and if they may develop into a sustainable and secure supply of meals. However can jellyfish develop into a meals of the longer term, not only for adventurous diners consuming at upscale eating places, however for all?

Jellyfish are in a broad group of aquatic animals that marine biologists confer with as “gelatinous macrozooplankton.” There are some 4,000 identified species worldwide, in all probability others unknown. They are often as small as a cereal flake, just like the extremely venomous Irukandji field jellyfish primarily discovered off the coast of Australia, or have tentacles as much as 36 meters lengthy, like the large lion’s mane jellyfish. Jellyfish are an necessary a part of marine ecosystems and function meals to 124 fish species and 34 other animals, such because the leatherback sea turtle.

However all is just not properly within the jellyfish world. Because the flip of this century, scientists have witnessed a worrying enhance in jellyfish populations in numerous elements of the world. In accordance with Lucas Brotz, a researcher who has lengthy studied jellyfish on the Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries on the College of British Columbia, it’s not straightforward to grasp the explanations behind the phenomenon.

“Not all jellyfish are growing in every single place, however we do see a kind of sustained main enhance in lots of areas around the globe,” says Brotz. And there are myriad causes that might be driving this alteration, amongst them alien jellyfish species being launched into new areas and vary enlargement as local weather change and warming waters favor some species over others.

The jellyfish enhance is being felt notably arduous in locations just like the Mediterranean Sea and alongside the coast of Japan. Hordes of jellyfish have destroyed fish farms, clogged energy vegetation, capsized fishing boats as they weighed down nets, and upended tourism by making waters unsafe for swimming. And their presence can affect creatures they share the ocean with, too.

“Think about [something the size of] the largest oil tanker on the earth, touring alongside the Mediterranean coasts to Israel, consuming all of the plankton,” says Stefano Piraino, Leone’s husband and a marine biologist and jellyfish knowledgeable on the College of Salento in Lecce, as he explains how huge blooms of jellyfish can hog all of the plankton that different planktivores want.

Seeing the brand new availability of jellyfish within the Mediterranean, Piraino joined Leone in her quest to search out attainable culinary makes use of of jellyfish.

Again at Duo, Viva slips on latex gloves and thoroughly lifts the Rhizostoma pulmo jellyfish from beneath the working faucet. They’re nonetheless a bit frozen, fairly not like the dried jellyfish utilized in Japanese delicacies, which have to be rehydrated earlier than use. Viva slips the jellies right into a pot of boiling water and begins to stir.

When Leone began learning how jellyfish might be used for meals or meals elements—and the way they might be preserved for later use—she stumbled upon one principal drawback. The first technique to protect jellyfish, as perfected in Asia, was to dehydrate them utilizing the chemical compound alum. However alum is considered toxic for human consumption and its use doesn’t meet the European Meals Security Authority’s requirements. So Leone and her colleagues got down to devise a brand new and unhazardous solution to desiccate edible jellyfish.

Her workforce overcame the drying problem by utilizing calcium salts as a substitute of alum and went on to experiment with dried, contemporary, and frozen jellies, turning them into mousse, meringue, seasonings, and thickeners.

Antonella Leone, in front, a senior researcher at the Italian National Research Council’s Institute of Sciences of Food Production, works with chefs to find ways to make jellyfish palatable to the general public.
Antonella Leone, in entrance, a senior researcher on the Italian Nationwide Analysis Council’s Institute of Sciences of Meals Manufacturing, works with cooks to search out methods to make jellyfish palatable to most of the people. Photograph by Agostino Petroni

The magic of turning gelatinous macrozooplankton into meals and meals merchandise occurs in Leone’s lab on the Institute of Sciences of Meals Manufacturing, the place she and her workforce of seven run their experiments. A protracted metal testing desk with two cabinets of clear jars and scales at its middle separates the expansive room. Inside an industrial fridge relaxation racks of take a look at tubes containing jellyfish extracts to review.

However it’s one factor to do analysis in a lab, and one other to persuade Italians to contemplate changing fish with jellyfish in a soup. In accordance with a 2020 study led by Luisa Torri, a professor of meals science and know-how on the College of Gastronomic Sciences of Pollenzo, there could be some hope for acceptance. The research surveyed 1,445 folks on their perspective towards the thought of consuming jellyfish, considering traits equivalent to age, behavioral habits, and mouthfeel, and confirmed that younger, well-traveled folks with larger schooling ranges and sensitivity to the setting are those extra more likely to eat jellyfish.

I match that class, so when Viva invitations me to take a whiff of the white foam now effervescent quickly on the range, I attempt to preserve an open thoughts.

At the restaurant Duo, in Lecce, Italy, a jellyfish-forward meal begins by boiling frozen jellyfish.
On the restaurant Duo, in Lecce, Italy, a jellyfish-forward meal begins by boiling frozen jellyfish. Photograph by Agostino Petroni

I shut my eyes and breathe deeply. “It smells like oysters,” I inform him.

“You have to disconnect your mind from what you already know,” says Viva. “You have to detach your self from the meals in your reminiscence.”

Is the important thing to accepting an uncommon meals making new meals reminiscences? If that’s the case, we’ll must discover a solution to get jellyfish from the ocean to dinner tables.

In addition to serving to to cope with future seas stuffed with jellyfish, fishing for these creatures has been touted as a method to assist small-scale European fishers, who’re fighting low fish shares.

“A supply of earnings? That might be nice!” says Rocco Cazzato, a sixth-generation small-scale fisher from Tricase Porto, on the thought of fishing jellyfish. “However I’d by no means eat them, not even when it’s the very last thing left on the earth to eat.”

Cazzato recounts the ache of pulling on his fishing nets crowded with jellyfish that he couldn’t promote, and he says that if jellyfish had been in demand domestically just like the generally consumed scorpionfish, these jellyfish within the internet would assist small fishers like him make ends meet.

Though Leone is working to fill the knowledge void, realizing which jellyfish are edible and secure for consumption continues to be a query few researchers are tasked with answering. In accordance with Brotz, whereas many alternative jellyfish varieties are growing worldwide, solely a handful of them are most well-liked for human consumption. And simply because they appear to be extra considerable, it doesn’t imply that fishing them can be a panacea. The title of a 2016 paper Brotz coauthored says all of it: “We should not assume that fishing jellyfish will solve our jellyfish problem.”

The paper advises warning: Jellyfish are understudied, and the consequences of eradicating them from the ecosystem, even when they’re in extra, are unknown and doubtlessly unfavourable. Some jellyfish, as an illustration, act as nurseries for juvenile fish, and jellyfish will be each predator and prey in meals chains.

Silvestro Greco, analysis director on the Anton Dohrn Zoological Station, echoes the priority that fishing isn’t essentially the best way to fight jellyfish blooms. He fears that when industrial jellyfish extraction begins, fast depletion might need sudden penalties on native marine environments. Within the early 2000s, as an illustration, a portion of the fishing fleet within the Gulf of California, Mexico, diverted its efforts to harvesting jellyfish. Fishers and processing plant employees shortly profited from the brand new market, however overfished the useful resource, resulting in the fast depletion of jellyfish.

Nonetheless, some fishers are poised to launch if a fishery opens—there may be already Asian curiosity in fishing jellyfish within the Mediterranean. However even with curiosity from fishers, if there’s no market, then there’s no level.

In accordance with Leone, the enterprise of getting jellyfish to the lots wants an entrepreneur prepared to speculate the a number of thousand euros wanted to request that the European Meals Security Authority (EFSA) accepts jellyfish as edible meals on the market, permitting them to be legally offered in fish markets and eating places.

Leone believes that, together with her workforce, she’s gathered the scientific analysis to help such an utility to EFSA and that some entrepreneurs have proven curiosity. It’s solely a matter of time earlier than some species of jellyfish make the checklist of accepted European meals, she says, and he or she’s eager to dealer the divide between fishers, markets, and cooks.

Creating this market might assist artisanal fishers, those most affected by jellyfish blooms, Leone says. “They arrive again with nets stuffed with jellyfish and three fish inside. If jellyfish would develop into accepted edible meals, they may promote it as sea merchandise like others.”

Leone first focused curious cooks—ones with out preconceptions, keen to just accept a problem—in 2015, they usually grew to become necessary workforce members. Leone and her workforce are a part of the EU-funded GoJelly venture that seemed into revolutionary makes use of for jellyfish—together with in fertilizers, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals, and for snaring microplastics. Membership signifies that Leone can frequently deliver Viva and different cooks jellyfish to experiment with of their kitchens and discover methods to make the ocean creature appetizing. Over time, Viva has tried the jellyfish pickled and dehydrated like chips, and as an ingredient in soups and pasta sauces.

Chef Fabiano Viva, of the restaurant Duo, sautés a jellyfish.
Chef Fabiano Viva, of the restaurant Duo, sautés a jellyfish.
Photograph by Agostino Petroni

Essentially the most vital issue that Pasquale Palamaro, chef of the Michelin-star restaurant Indaco on the island of Ischia, encountered was the drop in weight because the jellyfish was cooked.

Jellyfish are 95 % water and a small share of proteins, so when the animal dies, it loses a lot of the water. To keep away from this loss, Palamaro believes they should be consumed contemporary inside a number of hours of harvest or saved safely frozen or preserved with the calcium salt method that Leone developed.

Palamaro boils the Pelagia jellyfish from the Mediterranean for one minute, marinates it in citruses for an hour, after which seasons it with pumpkin seed oil earlier than serving it with quinoa. Gennaro Esposito, chef of the Michelin-star restaurant Torre del Saracino in Vico Equense, prefers to pair the jellyfish with marinated cucumbers, chili kefir, and lettuce paste. Leone has collected the extra profitable recipes of those cooks and others within the freely obtainable European Jellyfish Cookbook.

However not all cooks are satisfied of the jellyfish’s culinary potential. In 2017, Greco, a marine biologist but in addition a meals scientist and an avid prepare dinner, fried 50 kilograms of Pelagia jellyfish on the Sluggish Fish convention in Genova, Italy, to create consciousness in regards to the fast rise in jellyfish numbers within the Mediterranean.

“It was successful,” Greco says, “however as a result of they had been fried. Every part fried is sweet.”

He believes jellyfish don’t have an fascinating texture and don’t make a compelling case for culinary indulgence. All in all, he doesn’t imagine that jellyfish can be shortly adopted by cuisines that historically by no means used them.

However in line with Leone, jellyfish at the moment are in the identical scenario as tomatoes within the sixteenth century. Tomatoes, now a key ingredient in conventional Mediterranean delicacies, had been unknown earlier than being introduced over from the Americas across the 1550s. At first, they had been regarded as poisonous and unhealthy. Nonetheless, probably due to forward-looking cooks, or just due to necessity, tomatoes started showing on pizzas and in parmigiana and pasta sauce, finally changing into a part of the Mediterranean weight loss plan.

Whether or not or not jellyfish take an analogous trajectory and develop into accepted in Western markets is tough to say, however a lot of our favored seafoods are declining or have already collapsed, explains Brotz. “We could get to a degree the place there isn’t any different seafood obtainable.”

Again within the kitchen at Duo, Viva has turned one of many two jellyfish right into a soup, including tomato sauce, olive oil, a garlic clove, and a pinch of parsley. He provides me a serving.

I spot the turgid tentacles and a part of the cap floating within the orange liquid, and my abdomen turns. The primary spoonful of broth goes down shortly. It tastes like a scrumptious—and fishy—tomato soup. Then I seek for a chunk of the jellyfish. I hesitate. I slurp it up.

It appears like a gulp of the ocean itself as the flavour of the jellyfish unfurls in my mouth with the energy of a tsunami. The feel jogs my memory of calamari or a chunk of fats from a cooked steak. As I chew, attempting to repress the impulsive disgust, I consider cooked tripe. I swallow.

Chef Viva’s jellyfish soup in a broth of tomatoes, olive oil, garlic, and parsley.
Chef Viva’s jellyfish soup in a broth of tomatoes, olive oil, garlic, and parsley.
Photograph by Agostino Petroni

I have a look at Viva and say, truthfully: “It tastes like the ocean!” He smiles, agreeing.

As I take a number of extra well mannered spoonfuls, the phrases of Esposito, the chef of Torre del Saracino, come to thoughts. He’d identified that jellyfish carry a stigma of concern, however that the intuition to keep away from them will be unlearned. Via delicacies, “we remodel a concern and a dread right into a style, which is best,” he stated.

I mirror that my hesitancy could be a results of cultural heritage—this meals is as unfamiliar to me as a tomato was to my ancestors over 500 years in the past—as Viva prepares the opposite jellyfish. He coats it with flour and deep-fries it in vegetable oil.

This time, it’s crunchy and crispy—like a French fry. And, after all, it tastes nice.

This text first appeared in Hakai Magazine, and is republished right here with permission.

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